Language is a systematic means of communicating by the used of sounds or conventional symbols. Language is important. It is the expression of human communication through which our knowledge, belief, behavior can be experienced, explained, and shared with another. In the present global world, it is a vital for us to have an interaction more than ever with other countries, other cultures. For that reason, we need action and learning other countries languages and cultures. Therefore, we can compare and analyze them with our language, or it is known as contrastive analysis.
Contrastive analysis is usually called Anakon. It is an approach used for studying, especially for bilingual students. Anakon is different from Anakes (error analysis). These two concepts are actually different. However, they have the similar goal, that is, for bilingual students. Contrastive analysis or contrastive linguistic is one of the applied linguistics that analyzes and describes the comparison (equalities and differences) between source language (L1) and target language (L2).
Contrastive analysis includes all fields of linguistics such as phonology, semantics, syntax, morphology and pragmatics. It even seems that contrastive studies should rather be regarded as an approach, not as a branch of general linguistics. Most authors tend to distinguish between the so-called micro-linguistic and macro-linguistic features, the former comprising mainly the grammatical level and thus treating the sentence as the largest analysable unit, and the latter studying language in situation and context with emphasis on the communicative function. Throughout the history of contrastive studies great attention was paid to grammar and lexicon, whereas, the cultural aspects were largely neglected.
The aim of contrastive phonology is to contrast the phonetic sets of both languages and establish the differences. Another aspect, which is also to a certain extent linked with pragmatics, is intonation. Intonation, coupled with paraverbal means of communication like mime and gesture, can convey very different meanings and is often the source of misunderstanding between native and non-native speakers of a language. We often forget that in our mother tongue we are used to distinguish between tiny variations in intonation and we readily ascribe meanings to them, whereas in the foreign language the role of intonation and pronunciation in general is largely neglected.
Like most methodological approaches, the communicative approach to language teaching emphasises learning vocabulary items, but the focus is now on the function of vocabulary in the socio-cultural context. In investigating the lexicon of two languages with the object of contrasting them, we are sure to find certain aspects that require special attention. There is another area where contrastive studies are of particular use, namely lexicography and the theory of lexicography. An interesting issue in this field is the study of universals, i.e. of concepts that do not differ across cultures and are shared by many different language systems. Unfortunately, the limits of this paper do not allow me to deal with these issues in more detail.
In contrasting the syntactic structures of two languages as different as Slovene and English, the former being case-based and the latter word-order-based, we inevitably encounter so many differences that an analysis without our having a particular purpose in mind hardly seems reasonable. The position of complements in an English sentence is fixed, but not so in Slovene, since grammatical relations can be expressed through the use of inflections, which accounts for many structural differences between the two languages. But there is another aspect of sentence structure that occurs in great variations across languages and should be compared, namely the order of elements according to their importance. Nearly all languages of the world can in some way or other make an item of information stand out in a sentence. The rules for the position of information items; for example new information at the end of the sentence, are quite firm and are intuitively obeyed by most speakers, even by non-natives. Still, this is an interesting area in which syntax and pragmatics overlap.
There is more to languages than grammar and words. If we are to master a language, we must not only know how to form phrases and sentences, but also how to form texts. This branch of linguistics is often referred to as discourse or register analysis and presents a rather new area of interest, at least compared to other levels of describing language (semantics, syntax etc.). This may seem surprising, as it is quite obvious that as there are rules for putting words together to form a sentence, there must be some kinds of rules for putting sentences together to form a text. If we randomly put ten sentences together, the odds that they will make a coherent and meaningful text are rather small. The problem is that the rules for forming texts are not as explicit as grammatical rules, and they nearly always imply certain meta-textual factors, for example the situative context, cultural setting, the intentions of the speaker/writer and the expectations of the listener/reader, and many more. The task of contrastive text analysis and contrastive pragmatics is to compare these »rules« and factors and establish the differences, which can help learners of a language to communicate more efficiently. The mechanisms that generate meaning between sentences are complex and the rules for text composition very vague, but this is the very reason why we need to study them and compare them across languages. Viewed from this angle, contrastive text analysis and pragmatics may well be the most important levels of contrastive linguistics, especially with regard to language teaching.
With this paper, hopefully the readers are able to know that, there are similarities and differences in learning another language. So, they can compare between their first language as their mother tongue (L1) and second language as target one (L2).
In addition, for the language teacher, can apply this technique and approach in teaching language, especially teaching bilingual students.
Contrastive analysis can help teachers to :
- Design teaching and learning materials (methodology)
- Engage learner in activities to be a good user of target language.(classroom activities)
- Evaluate text books.
- Pay attention to the structure of the texts beyond sentence level
- Pay attention to conversation in its regular pattern in different situations
- Pay attention to complex areas like intonation
- Pay attention to different underlying rules which differ from culture to culture
2.1 The Concepts of Contrastive Analysis
The concepts of contrastive analysis basically come from the concepts of contrastive linguistics, that is, a branch of applied linguistics. This branch of linguistic concepts and methodologies used limits for various purposes. Applied linguistic is the study of language and linguistics in relation to practical problem. Based on its position as a scientific approach Continue reading