The Application of Contrastive Analysis in the Classroom




1.1        Background

Language is a systematic means of communicating by the used of sounds or conventional symbols. Language is important. It is the expression of human communication through which our knowledge, belief, behavior can be experienced, explained, and shared with another. In the present global world, it is a vital for us to have an interaction more than ever with other countries, other cultures. For that reason, we need action and learning other countries languages and cultures. Therefore, we can compare and analyze them with our language, or it is known as contrastive analysis.

Contrastive analysis is usually called Anakon. It is an approach used for studying, especially for bilingual students. Anakon is different from Anakes (error analysis). These two concepts are actually different. However, they have the similar goal, that is, for bilingual students. Contrastive analysis or contrastive linguistic is one of the applied linguistics that analyzes and describes the comparison (equalities and differences) between source language (L1) and target language (L2).

Contrastive analysis includes all fields of linguistics such as phonology, semantics, syntax, morphology and pragmatics. It even seems that contrastive studies should rather be regarded as an approach, not as a branch of general linguistics. Most authors tend to distinguish between the so-called micro-linguistic and macro-linguistic features, the former comprising mainly the grammatical level and thus treating the sentence as the largest analysable unit, and the latter studying language in situation and context with emphasis on the communicative function. Throughout the history of contrastive studies great attention was paid to grammar and lexicon, whereas, the cultural aspects were largely neglected.

The aim of contrastive phonology is to contrast the phonetic sets of both languages and establish the differences. Another aspect, which is also to a certain extent linked with pragmatics, is intonation. Intonation, coupled with paraverbal means of communication like mime and gesture, can convey very different meanings and is often the source of misunderstanding between native and non-native speakers of a language. We often forget that in our mother tongue we are used to distinguish between tiny variations in intonation and we readily ascribe meanings to them, whereas in the foreign language the role of intonation and pronunciation in general is largely neglected.

Like most methodological approaches, the communicative approach to language teaching emphasises learning vocabulary items, but the focus is now on the function of vocabulary in the socio-cultural context. In investigating the lexicon of two languages with the object of contrasting them, we are sure to find certain aspects that require special attention.   There is another area where contrastive studies are of particular use, namely lexicography and the theory of lexicography. An interesting issue in this field is the study of universals, i.e. of concepts that do not differ across cultures and are shared by many different language systems. Unfortunately, the limits of this paper do not allow me to deal with these issues in more detail.

In contrasting the syntactic structures of two languages as different as Slovene and English, the former being case-based and the latter word-order-based, we inevitably encounter so many differences that an analysis without our having a particular purpose in mind hardly seems reasonable. The position of complements in an English sentence is fixed, but not so in Slovene, since grammatical relations can be expressed through the use of inflections, which accounts for many structural differences between the two languages. But there is another aspect of sentence structure that occurs in great variations across languages and should be compared, namely the order of elements according to their importance. Nearly all languages of the world can in some way or other make an item of information stand out in a sentence. The rules for the position of information items; for example new information at the end of the sentence, are quite firm and are intuitively obeyed by most speakers, even by non-natives. Still, this is an interesting area in which syntax and pragmatics overlap.

There is more to languages than grammar and words. If we are to master a language, we must not only know how to form phrases and sentences, but also how to form texts. This branch of linguistics is often referred to as discourse or register analysis and presents a rather new area of interest, at least compared to other levels of describing language (semantics, syntax etc.). This may seem surprising, as it is quite obvious that as there are rules for putting words together to form a sentence, there must be some kinds of rules for putting sentences together to form a text. If we randomly put ten sentences together, the odds that they will make a coherent and meaningful text are rather small.   The problem is that the rules for forming texts are not as explicit as grammatical rules, and they nearly always imply certain meta-textual factors, for example the situative context, cultural setting, the intentions of the speaker/writer and the expectations of the listener/reader, and many more. The task of contrastive text analysis and contrastive pragmatics is to compare these »rules« and factors and establish the differences, which can help learners of a language to communicate more efficiently. The mechanisms that generate meaning between sentences are complex and the rules for text composition very vague, but this is the very reason why we need to study them and compare them across languages. Viewed from this angle, contrastive text analysis and pragmatics may well be the most important levels of contrastive linguistics, especially with regard to language teaching.


1.2        Objectives

With this paper, hopefully the readers are able to know that, there are similarities and differences in learning another language. So, they can compare between their first language as their mother tongue (L1) and second language as target one (L2).

In addition, for the language teacher, can apply this technique and approach in teaching language, especially teaching bilingual students.


Contrastive analysis can help teachers to :

  1. Design teaching and learning materials (methodology)
  2. Engage learner in activities to be a good user of target language.(classroom activities)
  3. Evaluate text books.
  4. Pay attention to the structure of the texts beyond sentence level
  5. Pay attention to conversation in its regular pattern in different situations
  6. Pay attention to complex areas like intonation
  7. Pay attention to different underlying rules which differ from culture to culture





2.1    The Concepts of Contrastive Analysis

The concepts of contrastive analysis basically come from the concepts of contrastive linguistics, that is, a branch of applied linguistics. This branch of linguistic concepts and methodologies used limits for various purposes. Applied linguistic is the study of language and linguistics in relation to practical problem. Based on its position as a scientific approach Continue reading



Raja Ampat merupakan salah satu Kabupaten di provinsi Papua Barat. dinamakan Raja Ampat karena terdapat 4 pulau utama yg merupakan penghasil lukisan batu kuno. sumber lain ( mengatakan karena ada 4 kerajaan yg dikuasai oleh 2 kerajan besar asal Maluku Utara yaitu Kerajaan Bacan dan Kerajaan Ternate. pulau-pulau di Raja Ampat sangatlah luas, mencakup 4,6 juta hektar tanah dan laut. Di sinilah rumah bagi 540 jenis karang, 1.511 spesies ikan, serta 700 jenis moluska. Kekayaan biota ini telah menjadikan Raja Ampat sebagai perpustakaan hidup dari koleksi terumbu karang dan biota laut paling beragam di dunia.
Raja Ampat merupakan tempat yg sangat cocok untuk menghabiskan waktu liburan anda, selain pergi ke Bali.



When I See You Smile

 Bad English

Sometimes I wonder
How I’d ever make it through
Through this world without having you
I just wouldn’t have a clue

‘Cause sometimes it seems
Like this world’s closing in on me
And there’s no way of breaking free
And then I see you reach for me

Sometimes I wanna give up
I wanna give in
I wanna quit the fight
And then I see you, baby
And everything’s alright
Everything’s alright

When I see you smile
I can face the world, oh oh
You know I can do anything
When I see you smile
I see a ray of light, oh oh
I see it shining right through the rain

When I see you smile
Baby, when I see you smile at me, oh yeah

Baby, there’s nothing in this world
That could ever do
What a touch of your hand can do
It’s like nothing that I ever knew

And when the rain is falling, I don’t feel it
‘Cause you’re here with me now
And one look at you, baby
Is all I’ll ever need, is all I’ll ever need

When I see you smile
I can face the world, oh oh
You know I can do anything
When I see you smile
I see a ray of light, oh oh
I see it shining right through the rain

When I see you smile, baby
Baby, when I see you smile at me

Sometimes I wanna give up
I wanna give in
I wanna quit the fight
Then one look at you, baby
And everything’s alright
Everything’s alright, so right

When I see you smile
I can face the world, oh oh
You know I can do anything, yeah
When I see you smile
I see a ray of light, oh oh
I see it shining right through the rain, yeah

When I see you smile
Yeah, I can face the world, oh oh
You know I can do anything
When I see you smile, oh yeah
Baby, when I see you smile
Smile at me



Manado menjadi tuan rumah pelaksanan Kejurnas Karate Kadet & Junior Piala MENDAGRI ke XVI tahun 2012. Kejuaraan ini akan dilaksanakan pada tanggal 1 – 3 Mei 2012 yang bertempat di GOR Arie Lasut, Mando – Sulawesi Utara. diperkiran lebih dari 1500 karateka akan menagmbil bagian pada Kejurnas Mendagri tahun ini. Diharapkan setiap FORKI provinsi masing-masing telah meakukan seleksi dan mempersiapkan atlit-atlit untuk mengikuti event ini.

Proposal Kejurnas Karate Piala Mendagri bisa di download DISINI



I heard that you’re settled down

 That you found a girl and you’re married now.

I heard that your dreams came true.

Guess she gave you things I didn’t give to you.

Old friend, why are you so shy?

Ain’t like you to hold back or hide from the light.

I hate to turn up out of the blue uninvited

But I couldn’t stay away, I couldn’t fight it.

I had hoped you’d see my face and that you’d be reminded

That for me it isn’t over.

Never mind, I’ll find someone like you I wish nothing but the best for you too

Don’t forget me, I beg I remember you said,

“Sometimes it lasts in love but sometimes it hurts instead,

Sometimes it lasts in love but sometimes it hurts instead, ”


You know how the time flies Only yesterday was the time of our lives

We were born and raised In a summer haze

Bound by the surprise of our glory days

I hate to turn up out of the blue uninvited

But I couldn’t stay away, I couldn’t fight it.

I’d hoped you’d see my face and that you’d be reminded

That for me it isn’t over.

Nothing compares No worries or cares

Regrets and mistakes They are memories made.

Who would have known how bittersweet this would taste?


RPP Bahasa Inggris SMA


Nama Sekolah : SMA Negri 1 Kota Ternate

Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris

Kelas/Semester : XI/I

Pertemuan : 1

Alokasi : 1 x 45 Menit

I. Standar Kompetensi :

Memahami makna teks tulis fungsional pendek esai sederhana berbentuk recount, narrative, dan procedure dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan.

II. Kompetensi dasar :

Merespon makna dan retorikateks tulis esai secara akurat, lancar, dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan dalam teks berbentuk recount, narrative, dan procedure.

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PAPER: Teaching English as a Foreign Language

The Practice of English Language Teaching

12105 88203 09 021



بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Praise to be Allah, the writer thank Allah praised be the lord. Due to His mercy and aid so the writer has been able to finish this paper entitle “The Practice of English Language Teaching (Describing Students & Describing Teachers)” well.
As human being, the writer realizes that this paper is still far from perfect. That’s because of the lacks of the writer’s knowledge. Therefore, the writer seriously accept critic, suggestion, and advise from other friends to make this proposal be perfect.
The last but not the least, the writer would like to thank to friends who had given ideas in making this proposal.

Ternate, January 2nd 2012

Ummi Salamah Tianotak


1.1 Background 1
1.2 Purpose 2

2.1 Describing Learners 3
2.1.1 Age 3
2.1.2 Learners Differences 6
2.1.3 Motivation 7
2.2 Describing Teachers 9
2.2.1 What is a Teacher? 9
2.2.2 The Role of a Teacher 9
2.2.3 The Teacher as Performer 11
2.2.4 The Teacher a Teaching Aid 11

3.1 Conclusion 13


1.1 Background
Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that earners face in the study of English are consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English. A native speaker of Chinese, for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because German is closely related to English, whereas Chinese is not. Another example be Spanish, because a lot of words that come from this language are written in some way though pronounced differently. This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue setting out to learn any other language.
Language learners often produce errors of syntax and pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their first language, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the second language, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false friends.

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